Back to index

Multiple-dispatch implementations & benchmarks

This project explores three different implementations of multiple-dispatch in JavaScript. As they are all seemingly identical from the outside, we want to know which one is fastest, so we ran some benchmarks. The example chosen to illustrate the implementations is what I'm going to refer to as the Box-Sphere problem:

There are 2 constructors, Box and Sphere. There is an intersects multimethod which takes 2 arguments of the aforementioned types. This method should be present on both boxes and spheres and should return whether the 2 objects intersect or not. Based on the type of the arguments we'd like to dispatch to the appropriate intersects method as there are different intersection tests to be performed depending on the object types.

The implementations:

Native-dispatch based

This approach uses multiple single-dispatch calls. All the intersects... methods are automatically generated and added to the prototypes of the constructors. Only the intersects method is to be used by the API consumer. The intermediate intersects... methods are an implementation artifact.

function Box () {}

Box.prototype.intersects = function (that) {

Box.prototype.intersectsBox = function (that) {
    console.log('box x box')

Box.prototype.intersectsSphere = function (that) {
    console.log('box x sphere')

function Sphere () {}

Sphere.prototype.intersects = function (that) {

Sphere.prototype.intersectsBox = function (that) {
    console.log('sphere x box')

Sphere.prototype.intersectsSphere = function (that) {
    console.log('sphere x sphere')

String-Map based

This approach is based on a map from string keys to methods. The keys are generated based on the constructors of the arguments passed to the multimethod. The mapping for the Box-Sphere example would look like this:

'Box-Box'       -> function () { console.log('box x box') }
'Box-Sphere'    -> function () { console.log('box x sphere') }
'Sphere-Box'    -> function () { console.log('sphere x box') }
'Sphere-Sphere' -> function () { console.log('sphere x sphere') }

Map-Map based

In this approach the methods are the leaves of a tree. Each node has its children indexed by constructors. The tree structure for the Box-Sphere example would look like this:

Box ->
    Box ->    function () { console.log('box x box') }
    Sphere -> function () { console.log('box x sphere') }
Sphere ->
    Box ->    function () { console.log('sphere x box') }
    Sphere -> function () { console.log('sphere x sphere') }


To see which approach runs fastest, we test them on a 5-way dispatch. There are 5 constructors and each of them has a method with 4 dynamic parameters. The 5th dispatch is the object on which we invoke the method initially.

The benchmarks were run on the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox and Edge as of 2017-03-26 and you can see them in the tables below:

Chrome Version 59.0.3043.0 dev (64-bit)

Implementation Ops/sec
native-dispatch 59.57
string-map 175
map-map 397

Firefox Version 55.0a1 (2017-03-25) (64-bit)

Implementation Ops/sec
native-dispatch 36.75
string-map 44.24
map-map 46.85

Edge Version 38.14393.0.0

Implementation Ops/sec
native-dispatch 24.22
string-map 44.92
map-map 46.86

Don't mind the difference in speed between browsers - that's not what we're interested in measuring. Instead notice the relative speed of the implementations on the same browser.

The implementations rank the same in all browsers. It's very interesting to note that the native dispatch based implementation is the slowest. Apparently it's less expensive to lookup in a Map than to do a dynamic dispatch.